What are the main artistic movements in painting?

Throughout the ages, painting has seen many artistic movements that have captured our attention and admiration. From Impressionism to Expressionism, each era has produced groundbreaking works of art that have defined culture and influenced our society. It is no wonder that so many people have devoted their time to studying these iconic movements in painting. Whether for those who are fascinated by the culture behind them, or for those who practice painting themselves, this article will highlight some of the most important art movements in history, and why they are so important today.

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Some of the main artistic movements:

Abstract art

Abstract art is a fascinating visual expression. Whereas traditional painting seeks to represent its subject in recognisable forms, abstract painting stands outside of realism, exploring instead colour, shape and form as its own distinct language. Its development in the early 20th century represented a break with the overt structure and meaning of classical and Renaissance art, allowing the artist to explore ideas that could not necessarily be represented by representational painting. Early practitioners included Vassily Kandinsky and Hilma af Klint, both of whom influenced movements such as Futurism and Cubism, two pillars of modern art today. Abstracts have become increasingly popular in recent years, offering us an escape from reality in creative interpretations of figures, landscapes and even emotions without realism or specific definition in their visual form.

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cubism was born in early 20th century Paris as a revolutionary parody of traditional painting styles. Its driving force was the Spanish artist Pablo Picasso and the French artist Georges Braque, who rejected traditional artistic aesthetics in search of an appearance that conveyed movement, depth and volume. In Cubism, traditional figures or objects were broken down into geometric shapes and formed with dark, tight lines, creating an abstract composition. This style revolutionised painting and is considered the first of the avant-garde movements. Futurist artists such as Roger de la Fresnay and Robert Delaunay took cubism to new heights by adding thin diagonal lines to create dynamic compositions with speed and energy. Later, the German painter Franz Marc incorporated bright colours with simple patterns to capture a sense of primitivism. Although Cubist paintings may seem abstract at first glance, they achieve a sense of realism when examined more closely. Throughout its history, Cubism has provided an innovative platform for modernist thought in painting.

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Expressionnism in painting is a movement that originated in Germany in the early 20th century and is characterised by vibrant, emotionally charged colours and energetic brushstrokes. This style sought to represent inner emotions, rather than simply reflecting reality on canvas. Each artist had his own vision of Expressionism: Vassily Kandinsky saw in the use of colour and form the possibility of expressing a spiritual world inaccessible by other means; Egon Schiele combined powerful lines with bold colours to depict intense psychological states; August Macke used bright colours and exhilarating textures; Max Beckmann uniquely expressed emotional intensity by emphasising the human figures in his works. These are just a few examples of the great Expressionist painters, whose works can still be found in museums around the world today.

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Impressionnism is a painting movement that emerged in the late 19th century, whose focus was on interpreting objects for their transient effect of light and colour on viewers. Artists such as Claude Monet, Vincent van Gogh and Pierre-Auguste Renoir were key figures in this movement, along with Alfred Sisley, Paul Cézanne and Camille Pissarro. Through Impressionism, Monet and his peers strove to capture the truth of visual perception to express vitality and spontaneity. Their technique was to use small strokes of broken colour that eventually blended together, creating a new sense of dimension. The works often depicted scenes of everyday life or beautiful landscapes, sometimes at different times of the day. Impressionism did not adhere to a single style, however; works could cover a variety of subjects, including abstract forms or exaggerated still lifes with vivid effects. Masterpieces such as Monet's "The Cliff Walk at Pourville" embody the spirit of Impressionism while adhering to its fundamental ideology that beauty transcends time.

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Pointillism, or divisionism, is an influential artistic technique characterised by the use of thousands of small dots of different colours to create a complex image. It was developed in the late 19th century by Georges Seurat and other Neo-Impressionist painters. The distinct approach of pointillism created beautiful, colourful works that accentuated the physical parameters of the painting. The technique was adopted by many influential 20th century artists, including Paul Signac and Henri Matisse, who incorporated bold colours and shapes into unique and eye-catching compositions. Pointillists also allowed viewers to compare the impressions generated by colour in different contexts, allowing them to explore patterns in art that capture emotions, feelings, memories and stories. This creative style plays both with visual perception and with broader ideas about colour theory and its use in fine art.

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Romanticism in painting developed in the late 18th and 19th centuries. Its main characteristics were an emphasis on strong emotions, an appreciation of nature and an interest in the stories of mythology and past civilisations. Artists such as Eugène Delacroix, William Turner and Caspar David Friedrich are considered three of its leading figures. Delacroix was strongly influenced by his work Freedom Leading the People (1830). This painting shows vivid colours, exaggerated forms and intense emotions that captivated the viewers. Turner was a master storyteller with his steamy landscapes, such as The Last Voyage of the Reckless (1839). His works evoke a deep sense of emotion by showing power struggles between nature and man. By directing their gaze towards tumultuous scenes while emphasising passionate colour palettes, these romantic painters created magnificent works of art that have continued to inspire viewers ever since.

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Symbolismin painting is a style of art developed in the late 19th century, mainly practiced by French, Belgian and Russian artists. Symbolist painters relied on the use of colour, form and line to communicate deeper, more abstract meanings behind their work. The best known symbolist painters are Edgar Degas, Gustav Klimt, Paul Gauguin, Edvard Munch and Ferdinand Hodler. These artists used their painting to convey emotions beyond literal understanding and to suggest dreamlike states or mystical visions. They also often sought inspiration from past cultures, such as pre-Romanesque and Gothic art, as evidenced by the heavy outlines that frame the figures in many of their works. Symbolism was one of the most influential movements in European post-impressionist art, which strongly influenced the pictorial trends of the 20th century.

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In conclusion, each major art movement has its own unique characteristics that set it apart from others. The importance of each cannot be overlooked, as they have all left a lasting mark on the art world and beyond. Through the development of new techniques and the abstraction of other styles, painters have created works that will have an impact on generations to come. To fully understand these movements and their interaction, one must always seek to analyse what made these movements so influential on the current scene and how their style continues to influence the way we view art today.

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